- Indexed Types for a Statically Safe WebAssemblyAdam T. Geller, Justin Frank, and William J. BowmanPrinciples of Programming Lanuages (POPL), 2024
We present Wasm-prechk, a superset of WebAssembly (Wasm) that uses indexed types to express and check simple constraints over program values. This additional static reasoning enables safely removing dynamic safety checks from Wasm, such as memory bounds checks. We implement Wasm-prechk as an extension of the Wasmtime compiler and runtime, evaluate the run-time and compile-time performance of Wasm-prechk vs WebAssembly configurations with explicit dynamic checks, and find an average run-time performance gain of 1.71x faster in the widely used PolyBenchC benchmark suite, for a small overhead in binary size (7.18% larger) and type-checking time (1.4% slower). We also prove type and memory safety of Wasm-prechk, prove Wasm safely embeds into Wasm-prechk ensuring backwards compatibility, prove Wasm-prechk type-erases to Wasm, and discuss design and implementation trade-offs.
- Flux: Liquid Types for RustNico Lehmann, Adam T. Geller, Niki Vazou, and 1 more authorProgramming Languages Design and Implementation (PLDI), 2023
We introduce Flux, which shows how logical refinements can work hand in glove with Rust’s ownership mechanisms to yield ergonomic type-based verification of low-level pointer manipulating programs. First, we design a novel refined type system for Rust that indexes mutable locations, with pure (immutable) values that can appear in refinements, and then exploits Rust’s ownership mechanisms to abstract sub-structural reasoning about locations within Rust’s polymorphic type constructors, while supporting strong updates. We formalize the crucial dependency upon Rust’s strong aliasing guarantees by exploiting the Stacked Borrows aliasing model to prove that "well-borrowed evaluations of well-typed programs do not get stuck". Second, we implement our type system in Flux, a plug-in to the Rust compiler that exploits the factoring of complex invariants into types and refinements to efficiently synthesize loop annotations-including complex quantified invariants describing the contents of containers-via liquid inference. Third, we evaluate Flux with a benchmark suite of vector manipulating programs and parts of a previously verified secure sandboxing library to demonstrate the advantages of refinement types over program logics as implemented in the state-of-the-art Prusti verifier. While Prusti’s more expressive program logic can, in general, verify deep functional correctness specifications, for the lightweight but ubiquitous and important verification use-cases covered by our benchmarks, liquid typing makes verification ergonomic by slashing specification lines by a factor of two, verification time by an order of magnitude, and annotation overhead from up to 24% of code size (average 14%), to nothing at all.
- Verifying That Web Pages Have Accessible LayoutPavel Panchekha, Adam T. Geller, Michael D. Ernst, and 2 more authorsProgramming Languages Design and Implementation (PLDI), 2018
Usability and accessibility guidelines aim to make graphical user interfaces accessible to all users, by, say, requiring that text is sufficiently large, interactive controls are visible, and heading size corresponds to importance. These guidelines must hold on the infinitely many possible renderings of a web page generated by differing screen sizes, fonts, and other user preferences. Today, these guidelines are tested by manual inspection of a few renderings, because 1) the guidelines are not expressed in a formal language, 2) the semantics of browser rendering are not well understood, and 3) no tools exist to check all possible renderings of a web page. VizAssert solves these problems. First, it introduces visual logic to precisely specify accessibility properties. Second, it formalizes a large fragment of the browser rendering algorithm using novel finitization reductions. Third, it provides a sound, automated tool for verifying assertions in visual logic. We encoded 14 assertions drawn from best-practice accessibility and mobile-usability guidelines in visual logic. VizAssert checked them on on 62 professionally designed web pages. It found 64 distinct errors in the web pages, while reporting only 13 false positive warnings.